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Echo Parakeet Psittacula eques

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered B1ab(iii);D1 
Vulnerable B1ab(iii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2007 Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 60 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300-350 good Estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 300-350 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.5 - - -
Population justification: At the end of the 2011/2012 breeding season the population was estimated at c580 birds, which was conservatively estimated to include 300-350 mature individuals (V. Tatayah in litt. 2012).
Trend justification: The population is estimated to have experienced an extremely rapid increase over the last 23 years (three generations). The population increased from <50 birds in 2000 to 280-300 in 2005 (C. Jones in litt. 2005), and the 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 breeding seasons have shown continued improvement (Raffray 2005, V. Tatayah in litt. 2006, Malham 2007). By March 2006 the population had increased to an estimated 309-335 birds, although numbers fell to an estimated 290 birds by August 2006, probably due to Psittacene Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) (V. Tatayah in litt. 2006). Despite this, the population had increased to an estimated 343 birds in 2007 (Raffray 2007) and c.580 birds in 2011/2012 (V. Tatayah in litt. 2010).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Mauritius Native Extant       Yes
Réunion (to France) Native Extinct       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Mauritius Macchabé - Brise Fer forest site factsheet
Mauritius Relict forests of central plateau site factsheet
Mauritius Southern slopes site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major resident
Altitude 200 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Pig (Sus domesticus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Jamrosa (Syzygium jambos) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Javan Rusa (Rusa timorensis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Privet (Ligustrum robustum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Strawberry Guava (Psidium cattleianum) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Psittacine Circoviral Disease (PCD) (Circoviridae) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Psittacula eques. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Newton & Newton, 1876)
Population size 300-350 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 60 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species