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Marvellous Spatuletail Loddigesia mirabilis
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Justification
There are recent records of this species from just two locations and the known range is very small. Little demographic information is available, but the best-known population seems to be declining. It is therefore considered Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
10-15 cm. Medium-sized hummingbird with amazing tail. Male has blue crest-like cap. Blue gorget and black line down centre of breast and belly. Rest of underparts white with green sides of breast and belly. Above mostly bronzy-brown. Lateral tail feathers very long, bare and ending in large, dark rackets. Two central feathers long and narrow. Tail varies with age. Female has white throat and lacks black on underparts. Tail much shorter, still shows drop-shaped rackets. Similar spp. Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii is much greener with rounded head. Voice Peculiar humming and loud flapping noises of the modified flight feathers.

Distribution and population
Loddigesia mirabilis is uncommon and restricted to the eastern slopes of the río Utcubamba valley (an affluent on the right bank of the río Marañón) in the Cordillera del Colán, Amazonas, and one locality further east in San Martín, north Peru (M. Pearman in litt. 1995). On the slopes above the río Utcubamba, it is known from three areas (north and south-east of Leimebamba, the Chachapoyas area and Florida, on the shore of Lago Pomacochas), but the only recent records are from Florida (Clements and Shany 2001). However, a male recorded near Jesús del Monte, San Martín, in 1987 (M. Pearman in litt. 1995) indicates that there is much to learn about the species's distribution, and there are recent reports of the species from near Tingo, Utcubamba and it is also rumoured to occur immediately adjacent to Leimebamba (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007). In the 1960s, it was reported to have occurred at c.15 localities west of the río Utcubamba in Luya province, but there is no supporting evidence. It appears to occur at low densities and numbers seem to have dwindled around Florida.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 53.5-60.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (12 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by ≥50% over three generations.

Ecology
It occurs in forest edge, second growth, montane scrub and, in particular, thorny, impenetrable Rubus thickets admixed with Alnus trees, at 2,100-2,900 m (occasionally 1,700-3,700 m) (Clements and Shany 2001). Its preferred food-plant is the red-flowered lily Alstroemeria (Bomarea) formosissima, but it has been observed feeding on at least five species of flowering plant (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998). The breeding season is thought to run from late October to early May. Adult males (which are greatly outnumbered by females and immature males) gather at leks where they display to attract females.

Threats
Deforestation is widespread on the mountain slopes of the Cordillera del Colán, with much habitat cleared since 1978, and remaining forest under threat of conversion to cash-crops such as marijuana and coffee (Barnes et al. 1995). However, the species's apparent preference for forest edge and isolated woodlots on steep slopes may reduce its vulnerability to habitat alteration. Interviews with Florida's inhabitants and enquiries in a nearby market town have revealed that dried hearts of the males of this species are believed to have aphrodisiac properties (Garrigues 2000). Hunting with slingshots for this reason may even explain the skewed sexual ratio (Garrigues 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. A protected area was set up under a conservation easement in 2006 (Anon 2006). Several organisations are currently working in partnership to conduct an education programme, survey additional sites and raise funds for land acquisition in the La Florida region (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007). In 2006, ECOAN established the Huembo Visitor Centre in Pomacochas, Amazonas.Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to survey to locate additional sites for the species, and follow up recent reports of the species from near Tingo and immediately adjacent to Leimebamba (H. Lloyd in litt. 2007). Survey to investigate its potential occurrence west of the río Utcubamba (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998). Estimate the population near Florida. Protect remaining forests in the Cordillera del Colán (Barnes et al. 1995). Develop initiatives to reduce the impact of hunting.

References
Anon. 2006. Marvelous Spatuletail protected by conservation easement in Peru. La Tangara: 4.

Barnes, R.; Butchart, S.; Clay, R.; Davies, C.; Seddon, N. 1995. The conservation status of the Cordillera de Colán, northern Peru. Cotinga: 6-7.

Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Garrigues, R. L. 2000. Is Marvellous Spatuletail Loddigesia mirabilis threatened by hunting? Cotinga 14: 13.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Lloyd, H., Pearman, M., Rowlett, R., Webster, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Loddigesia mirabilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Marvellous spatuletail (Loddigesia mirabilis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Bourcier, 1847)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 110 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species