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NR
 Charadrius tricollaris

This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.

Taxonomic note
Charadrius tricollaris and C. bifrontatus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. tricollaris following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Ecology
Behaviour The migratory status of this species is poorly known (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but some populations may undergo partial intra-African dispersive movements in response to rainfall (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005). The species breeds opportunistically throughout the year although nesting usually peaks between April and September in the tropics, between July and December in the south and between July and September in Madagascar (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It nests in solitary pairs with territories (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) stretching 80-150 m along the shore (Hockey et al. 2005), and usually forages singly, in pairs or in small flocks of 6-10 up to 20 individuals (very rarely in larger groups of 40 individuals) (Urban et al. 1986). It roosts solitarily or in groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996), occasionally forming loose roosting flocks of more than one hundred individuals in the winter (Hockey et al. 2005). Habitat The species requires clear, firm sand, mud or gravel shores for nesting, foraging and roosting (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It inhabits the edges of inland freshwater lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996), temporary or muddy pools (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) and rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996), streams with shingle banks (Johnsgard 1981), rice-paddies (Madagascar) (Langrand 1990), and the margins of artificial water-bodies (e.g. sewage tanks) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It also occurs along the coast on the edges of intertidal mudflats (Johnsgard 1981, Langrand 1990), sandy beaches (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), coastal lagoons, estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hockey et al. 2005), tidal pools (Hockey et al. 2005), and mangroves (Langrand 1990) where shows a preference for the least saline areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists of adult and larval aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, small molluscs and worms (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a simple scrape placed on sand, dry mud (del Hoyo et al. 1996), shingle (Hayman et al. 1986) or on rocks close to water (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species may be susceptible to future outbreaks of avian botulism (Blaker 1967).

References
Blaker, D. 1967. An outbreak of Botulinus poisoning among waterbirds. Ostrich 38(2): 144-147.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hayman, P.; Marchant, J.; Prater, A. J. 1986. Shorebirds. Croom Helm, London.

Hockey, P. A. R.; Dean, W. R. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1981. The plovers, sandpipers and snipes of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, U.S.A. and London.

Langrand, O. 1990. Guide to the birds of Madagascar. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1986. The birds of Africa vol. II. Academic Press, London.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charadrius tricollaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

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To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Not Recognised
Family Charadriidae (Plovers)
Species name author Vieillot, 1818