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Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 733,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 733,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina Native Extant      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Vagrant Extant      
Barbados Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Belize Native Extant   Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant     Yes
Bolivia Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes
Chile Native Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Cuba Vagrant Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Ecuador Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
France Vagrant Extant      
French Guiana Native Extant      
French Polynesia Vagrant Extant      
Gambia Vagrant Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Guatemala Native Extant      
Haiti Vagrant Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Kiribati Vagrant Extant      
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Vagrant Extant      
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Mozambique Vagrant Extant      
Namibia Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Panama Native Extant      
Paraguay Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Senegal Vagrant Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
South Africa Vagrant Extant      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Vagrant Extant      
Spain Vagrant Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant      
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Zambia Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Beaverhill Lake site factsheet
Canada Bigstick Lake Plain site factsheet
Canada Blackstrap Coulee site factsheet
Canada Frank Lake (south) site factsheet
Canada Luck Lake site factsheet
Canada Netley-Libau Marsh site factsheet
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA site factsheet
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area site factsheet
Canada Reed Lake site factsheet
Canada Rice Lake site factsheet
Canada Whitewater Lake site factsheet
Chile Bahía Rilán site factsheet
Chile Bio-bio Desembocadura site factsheet
Chile Costa sur de Arica site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Itata site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Maipo site factsheet
Chile Estuario Lenga site factsheet
Chile Humedal de Batuco site factsheet
Chile Humedal-Estuario Tubul-Raqui site factsheet
Chile Humedal-Marisma Rocuant Andalién site factsheet
Chile Isla Santa María site factsheet
Chile Playa Colún site factsheet
Chile Playa Pilolcura site factsheet
Chile Playa Sur de Arica site factsheet
Chile Puerto de Arica site factsheet
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén site factsheet
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela site factsheet
Ecuador Isla Española site factsheet
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec-Mar Muerto site factsheet
Peru Estuario de Virrila site factsheet
Peru Pantanos de Villa site factsheet
USA Bear River Bay UT02 site factsheet
USA Ogden Bay site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus pipixcan. Downloaded from on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author Wagler, 1813
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 733,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species