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Principe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus
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Justification
This newly split species is estimated to have an extremely small population, occupying an extremely small range and restricted to a single island which is susceptible to the introduction of alien species. The extent and quality of habitat are in decline, which, together with a plausible threat from hunting, is suspected to be driving a continuing decline in the population. For these reasons the species qualifies as Critically Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
Melo, M.; Bowie, R. C. K.; Voelker, G.; Dallimer, M.; Collar, N. J.; Jones, P. J. 2010. Multiple lines of evidence support the recognition of a very rare bird species: the Principe Thrush. Journal of Zoology (London) 282(2): 120-129.

Taxonomic note
Turdus olivaceofuscus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993; Dowsett and Forbes-Watson 1993) has been split into T. olivaceofuscus and T. xanthorhynchus by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group following Melo et al. (2010).

Synonym(s)
Turdus olivaceofuscus Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993), Turdus olivaceofuscus BirdLife International (2004, 2008), Turdus olivaceofuscus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Identification
24 cm. Dull olive-brown above from head below eye to tail; head slightly darker. Chin and throat dusky buff with whitish streaks. Dark, coarse and uneven dusky-buff scaling on buff-washed breast, shading to dusky-buff scalloping on whitish remaining underparts. Underwing coverts pale orange-buff against creamy secondaries. Iris bluish-white, with a narrow yellow eye-ring. Bill large and bright yellow. Legs dull yellow. Sexes similar. Juvenile like adult with light buff flecking above and blotched brown below. Similar species T. olivaceofuscus on São Tomé is larger and has dark legs and mostly dark bill, with paler, less coarse scaling below. Its iris is dark brown to red, and it lacks a pale eye-ring.

Distribution and population
Turdus xanthorhynchus is endemic to the island of Príncipe, São Tomé e Principe (del Hoyo et al. 2005). The taxon was discovered in 1901 (Clement and Hathway 2000, del Hoyo et al. 2005). After an absence of records since the 1920s, it was rediscovered in 1997, and has since been found to be common in the remaining forest in the centre and south of the island (del Hoyo et al. 2005, Jones and Tye 2006, Dallimer et al. 2010). It is now considered a separate species rather than a subspecies of T. olivaceofuscus (Melo et al. 2010). Following a survey of Príncipe in 2007, a population estimate of 364 individuals (95% CI: 186-887) was put forward (Dallimer et al. 2010). However, the authors consider this to be an overestimate because the species does not occupy all areas of primary forest and the data may have been biased by the species's habit of readily approaching humans, thus it is estimated that there are fewer than 250 mature individuals (Dallimer et al. 2010).

Population justification
Data collected during a survey of Príncipe in 2007 were used to derive a population estimate of 364 individuals (with a 95% confidence interval of 186-887). However, the authors consider this to be an overestimate because the species does not occupy all areas of primary forest and the data may have been biased by the species's confiding nature, thus it is estimated that there are fewer than 250 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and perhaps hunting pressure, however the rate of decline has not been estimated.

Ecology
The species has been recorded in primary forest from the lowlands to c.800 m at least, although most birds occur above 400 m (Dallimer et al. 2010). It feeds mainly on invertebrates and fruit (Clement and Hathway 2000, del Hoyo et al. 2005). Breeding by T. olivaceofuscus prior to the recent taxonomic change was described as taking place from the end of July through to January, with a peak in October-December (Clement and Hathway 2000, del Hoyo et al. 2005). Its nest is a bulky cup of mixed dry vegetation and mud, covered externally with dead leaves, moss and twigs and it usually lays a clutch of two eggs (Clement and Hathway 2000, del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Threats
There is evidence that deforestation since human colonisation in the 1500s (Jones and Tye 2006) would have caused dramatic declines in this species (Dallimer et al. 2010). Deforestation is still a threat, but much reduced by the recent protection of the majority of primary forest on Príncipe (Dallimer et al. 2010). It is speculated that, as the species is very tame (Clement and Hathway 2000, Dallimer et al. 2010), it may suffer some mortality through opportunistic hunting (Dallimer et al. 2010). However, there is only circumstantial evidence from the comparison of survey data and interviews with local people that it is disappearing from areas of forest frequently used by people (Dallimer et al. 2010). As a species that is restricted to one small island, it is potentially threatened by the introduction of alien species.

Conservation Actions Underway
Most of the remaining primary forest on Príncipe is protected by Parque Natural d'Obô do Príncipe (Dallimer et al. 2010). As part of the management plan for protected areas, currently being drafted by the government and ECOFAC (an EU-funded conservation programme for the forests of Central Africa), the species was chosen as one of a suite of indicator species that will be monitored through regular surveys in order to assess the effectiveness of the protected areas for biodiversity conservation (Dallimer et al. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor habitat trends. Adopt T. xanthorhynchus as a flagship species for conservation on Príncipe (Dallimer et al. 2010). Study the potential threat of hunting pressure. Initiate education and awareness-raising campaigns to reduce any hunting pressure. Promote sustainable alternative livelihoods to reduce reliance on the harvesting of non-timber forest products (Dallimer et al. 2010).

References
Clement, P.; Hathway, R. 2000. Thrushes. Christopher Helm, London.

Dallimer, M.; Melo, M.; Collar, N. J.; Jones, P. J. 2010. The Príncipe Thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus: a newly split, 'Critically Endangered', forest flagship species. Bird Conservation International 20(4): 375-381.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Jones, P.; Tye, A. 2006. The birds of São Tomé & Príncipe, with Annobón islands of the Gulf of Guinea. British Ornithologists' Union, Oxford, U.K.

Melo, M.; Bowie, R. C. K.; Voelker, G.; Dallimer, M.; Collar, N. J.; Jones, P. J. 2010. Multiple lines of evidence support the recognition of a very rare bird species: the Principe Thrush. Journal of Zoology (London) 282(2): 120-129.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Turdus xanthorhynchus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author Salvadori, 1901
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 47 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species