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Amur Falcon Falco amurensis

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number > c.1,000,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.50 individuals on migration in Korea; < c.50 individuals on migration in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). A national census in South Africa recorded 111,291 individuals in 2009 (Symes and Woodborne 2010), this suggests that a large proportion of the population overwinters further north or that the global population size is considerably smaller than the maximum estimate of 1,000,000 individuals (Global Raptor Information Network 2015).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

The species is vulnerable to degradation of grassland habitats by agriculture and afforestation in its African range (Global Raptor Information Network 2015). Open cast mining in South Africa threatens the species's grassland habitats and persecution on migration is a further threat (Symes and Woodborne 2010). In Nagaland, India, the species was heavily persecuted during autumn migration however following an international response and effective conservation action, no birds were captured during the 2013 autumn migration (Lawrence 2013). Grazing in the Mongolian drylands is thought to reduce recruitment of Siberian elm Ulmus pumila, the stands of which are used as breeding and sheltering sites by the species (Wesche et al. 2011).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Global Raptor Information Network. 2015. Species account: Amur Falcon Falco amurensis. Available at: (Accessed: 03/07/2015).

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Lawrence, J. 2013. Action for Amur Falcons brings hope for an end to hunting in Nagaland. Available at: (Accessed: 03/07/2015).

Symes, C.T. and Woodborne, S. 2010. Migratory connectivity and conservation of the Amur Falcon Falco amurensis: a stable isotope perspective. Bird Conservation International 20: 134-148.

Wesche, K., Walther, D., von Wehrden, H. and Hensen, I. 2011. Trees in the desert: Reproduction and genetic structure of fragmented Ulmus pumila forests in Mongolian drylands. Flora 206: 91-99.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M. & Ashpole, J

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Falco amurensis. Downloaded from on 26/11/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/11/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Amur falcon (Falco amurensis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)
Species name author Radde, 1863
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,930,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change