This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and past declines are not believed to have been be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is moderately small to large, and it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
The species has historically suffered from exploitation and persecution brought about by local people, including collecting chicks for food (Global Raptor Information Network 2015). Human disturbance associated with tourism development has also been shown to negatively influence birds' breeding success (Martínez et al. 2002, Orta and Kirwan 2014). Predation by rats is also possibly important on some breeding islands (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Accidental pesticide poisoning was thought to be responsible for a decline in the breeding population on Crete (Ristow and Xirouchakis 2000 and Ristow 2001 in Global Raptor Information Network 2015). The species is vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Global Raptor Information Network. 2015. Species account: Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae. Available at: http://www.globalraptors.org/grin/SpeciesResults.asp?specID=8237. (Accessed: 08/07/2015).
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Martínez-Abrain, A., Oro, D., Ferrís, V. and Belenguer, R. 2002. Is growing tourist activity affecting the distribution or number of breeding pairs in a small colony of the Eleonora's Falcon? Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 25(2): 47-51.
Orta, J. and Kirwan, G.M. 2014. Eleonora's Falcon (Falco eleonorae). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
STRIX. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Text account compilers
Burfield, I., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N. & Ashpole, J
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Falco eleonorae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)|
|Species name author||Géné, 1839|
|Population size||29200-29600 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||140,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- 2015 European Red List assessment