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Southern Bald Ibis Geronticus calvus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A3c+4c;C2a(ii) 
Vulnerable  

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 207,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000 good Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 4000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -
Population justification: Barnes (2000) estimated a total population of 8,000-10,000 birds (including 2,000 breeding pairs i.e. 4,000 mature individuals).
Trend justification: South African populations may have increased between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, but the Lesotho population may be declining. Overall, the species's population is suspected to have decreased at a moderate rate because of habitat loss and degradation. Rapid population declines are projected to occur in the future if current rates of habitat loss continue.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Lesotho Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
Swaziland Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Lesotho Liqobong site factsheet
Lesotho Mafika - Lisiu site factsheet
Lesotho Sehlabathebe National Park site factsheet
Lesotho Sehonghong and Matebeng site factsheet
Lesotho Upper Quthing Valley site factsheet
Lesotho Upper Senqu River site factsheet
South Africa Alexpan site factsheet
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District site factsheet
South Africa Bedford-Chatsworth site factsheet
South Africa Blue Swallow Natural Heritage Site site factsheet
South Africa Blyde River Canyon site factsheet
South Africa Chelmsford Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Chrissie Pans site factsheet
South Africa Fouriesburg - Bethlehem - Clarens site factsheet
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Hlatikulu Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park site factsheet
South Africa Impendle Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Ithala Game Reserve site factsheet
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Mac-Mac Escarpment and Forests site factsheet
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Mkuzi Game Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Songimvelo Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Steenkampsberg site factsheet
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park site factsheet
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umvoti Vlei site factsheet
Swaziland Mahamba Mountain site factsheet
Swaziland Malolotja Nature Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 1200 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Air-borne pollutants / Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Geronticus calvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises, Spoonbills)
Species name author (Boddaert, 1783)
Population size 4000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 207,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change