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VU
Hispaniolan Amazon Amazona ventralis

Justification
This species is considered Vulnerable because anecdotal evidence suggests that there has been a rapid population reduction. The size of the population and the exact extent of the decline are unclear, and clarification may lead to the species being reclassified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
28-31 cm. Bright green parrot with white forehead, blue flight feathers, maroon belly-patch and red in tail. Similar spp. Only Amazona parrot on Hispaniola. Introduced in Puerto Rico where more common that Puerto Rican Amazon A. vittata. Voice Noisy. Wide variety of squawks and screeches. Bugling flight call.

Distribution and population
Amazona ventralis is endemic to Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and the associated islands of Grande Cayemite, Gonâve, Beata and Saona (AOU 1998). Introduced populations are established in Puerto Rico (to U.S.A.), and St Croix and St Thomas in the Virgin Islands (to U.S.A.) (AOU 1998). It was common on Hispaniola, but declined significantly during the 20th century. By the 1930s, it was mainly restricted to the interior mountains, where it remains locally fairly common in suitable habitat, particularly within several major forest reserves (Juniper and Parr 1998, Raffaele et al. 1998). Elsewhere, it is now uncommon, rare or absent. The introduced population in Puerto Rico numbers several hundred and is apparently increasing (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends, but the species is suspected to be declining rapidly, as a result of hunting, habitat loss and trapping.

Ecology
It inhabits a variety of wooded habitats, from arid palm-savannah to pine and montane humid forest, up to and slightly above 1,500 m (Juniper and Parr 1998). It frequently forages in cultivated lands (AOU 1998), such as banana plantations and maize fields (Collar 1997a). Breeding is known from February to May, but prospecting pairs have been seen in mid-April, suggesting that the season may extend further into the year (Collar 1997a, Juniper and Parr 1998, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1998). Nests are situated in tree-cavities, and sometimes dead tree-stumps (Collar 1997a, Juniper and Parr 1998, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1998).

Threats
Agricultural conversion and charcoal production have destroyed most suitable habitat. It is also persecuted as a crop-pest, hunted for food and trapped for the local and formerly at least, international cage-bird trade (Juniper and Parr 1998). Trapping of adults and robbing nests for chicks to supply the local pet trade is a particular concern because in some areas most families own a parrot, and these only live a few years before they have to be replaced (G. Woolmer in litt. 2005, T. White in litt. 2012). Moreover, nest-robbing activities frequently result in destruction of the nest cavity or nest tree, further exacerbating loss of nesting habitat to other causes (T. White in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. An education strategy with community participation has been launched to protect the species (Vásquez et al. 1995). In 1997-1998, 49 captive-reared birds were released and radio-tracked in Parque del Este, Dominican Republic (Vilella et al. 1999). The Loma Charco Azul Biological Reserve, created in 2009, holds populations of the species. Also, recent public education and outreach work, including some enforcement actions, have taken place in several communities surrounding the Parque Nacional Jaragua, near the border with Haiti.  In January 2012 there was also a release of 10 captive-reared parrots which had been confiscated as young chicks from nest poachers.  These chicks were reared and rehabilitated at the Parque Zoologico Nacional, and successfully released on the grounds of the zoological park (T. White in litt. 2012).Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the current size of the population. Establish a comprehensive monitoring programme. Determine the extent of remaining habitat. Determine the impact of the various threats. Enforce the laws and regulations protecting this species and its habitat (Snyder et al. 2000). Encourage better bird-keeping practices to reduce the demand on wild birds and develop a captive breeding programme.  Educate public regarding negative impact of native pet trade in the Dominican Republic (T. White in litt. 2012).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Vásquez, R. E.; Lara, T.; Lorenzo, R. 1995. Estrategia educativa con la participación comunitaria para la protección de la cotorra y el perico en República Dominicana. Pitirre 8(3): 12.

Vilella, F. J.; White, T. H.; Collazo, J. A.; Guerrero, S. 1999. Habitat use, movements and activity patterns of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional de Este, Dominican Republic. Pitirre 12: 54.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Kirwan, G., Woolmer, G., White, T.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona ventralis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Hispaniolan Amazon (Amazona ventralis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (M?ller, 1776)
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species