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Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus

Justification
This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened owing to evidence that is has undergone a moderately rapid population decline over the past three generations.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
<Gypaetus barbatus is widely and disjunctly distributed across the Palearctic, Afrotropical and Indomalayan regions, but is very rare in some areas and thought to be in decline overall (Ferguson- Lees and Christie 2001).

In India, the species is locally common throughout the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh (R. Naoroji in litt. 2011, P. Trivedi in litt. 2013). Some altitudinal movements occur during winter, when individuals are occasionally seen as low as 600 m (R. Naoroji in litt. 2011). It is a widespread altitudinal migrant in Nepal (C. Inskipp and H. S. Baral in litt. 2011), with its population in the country estimated at c.500 individuals in 2010 (K. Paudel and T. Galligan in litt. 2014). The species is described as rare in Bhutan (S. Sherub in litt. 2013). In Iraq, there may be fewer than 20 pairs (R. Porter in litt. 2013).

The species is regarded as rare and at high risk in Egypt (W. A. L. Ibrahim in litt. 2011). There are estimated to be a few hundred pairs in Ethiopia (I. Angelov in litt. 2011). In 2011, there were only three nest-sites known in Kenya, and six or more in Tanzania, with the population in Uganda unknown, although there was evidence of near total loss of the Mt Elgon population (S. Thomsett in litt. 2011). There are estimated to be 5-10 pairs in Morocco, but not recent information on its status in Algeria, and it is considered extinct in Tunisia (F. Cuzin in litt. 2011). In southern Africa, including South Africa, the population is estimated at c.100 breeding pairs (S. Krüger in litt. 2012).

In Europe, the population has grown in the Alps (with the emergence of new breeding pairs due to a reintroduction project, with 19 pairs in 2010), and in the Pyrenees, particularly in its central part (Aragon, Spain), from its population of 39 pairs in 1994 to 72 pairs in 2010. In Spain, two reintroduction projects are under way in Andalusia and the Cantabrian Mountains. The total population in EU countries was estimated at 175 pairs in 2010 (J. A. Gil Gallus in litt. 2011). Although there were thought to be 2-5 individuals in the Macedonia-Greece and Bulgaria-Greece border areas at the turn of the century, there has been a lack of records since 2005 (E. Stoynov in litt. 2011). In Turkey, a maximum population of 160 pairs is thought likely (K. A. Boyla in litt. 2014). In Armenia, the population is estimated at 13-15 breeding pairs (M. Ghasabyan in litt. 2011). Population trends vary regionally and locally. In the Himalayas of India, there has been a perceived decline in recent years (P. Trivedi in litt. 2013). It was once commonly seen in the western and central Himalayas, but in recent years it has not been observed as frequently in the central lower Himalaya, perhaps owing to disturbance (R. Naoroji in litt. 2011), and there has been an apparent decline in Uttarakhand since the late 1990s (M. Sharma in litt. 2014). Populations in Ladakh and along the high Himalayas are regarded as likely to be secure (R. Naoroji in litt. 2011). Steep declines have been recorded in the Upper Mustang region of Nepal recently, with numbers recorded per day and per kilometre decreasing by 73% and 80% respectively between 2002 and 2008 (Acharya et al. 2010). The population appears to be stable in south-eastern Kazakhstan (S. Sklyarenko in litt. 2011). In Yemen, the species appears to have declined since the early 1980s (R. Porter in litt. 2013). The species's range and population in Turkey also appear to have declined in recent years (K. A. Boyla in litt. 2014). In Armenia, the population has been stable since the 1990s (M. Ghasabyan in litt. 2011). In southern Africa, the species's breeding range has declined by about 25% since the early 1980s (S. Krüger in litt. 2012).

Population justification
Ferguson-Lees et al. (2001) estimated the population to number 1,000-10,000 individuals, but in Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 300-700 breeding pairs, equating to 900-2,100 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). A revised global estimate is therefore 2,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is declining throughout its range with the exception of northern Spain, where the population has increased since 1986. Poisoning, both accidental and targeted, as well as habitat degradation, disturbance of breeding sites and collision with powerlines are considered to be the main threats (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Overall, it is suspected that the population has declined by 25-29% over the past three generations.

Ecology

Behaviour It is resident where is occurs, but has vast home ranges, and juveniles will wander even more widely than adults (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat The species occupies remote, mountainous areas, with precipitous terrain, usually above 1,000 m, and in particular areas where large predators such as wolves and Golden Eagles are present, and there are herds of mammals such as mountain goats, ibex, and sheep (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Diet The species will forage over vast distances (up to 700 km in one day has been recorded), using a soaring flight. Its principle food is carrion, with its diet including a large proportion of bones (as much as 85%) whereupon the bird gets nutrition from the marrow inside. The rest of its diet comprises tortoises, and occasionally also live mammals and birds. It is generally unwilling to compete with vultures at carcasses, and will wait patiently to feed, scavenging older carcasses if fresh meat is scarce. Bones are either consumed whole, broken using the bill, hammered against the ground, or lifted into the air and dropped from 50-80 m high onto hard rock. Tortoises and hyraxes are generally treated in the same way as bones.  It is known to scavenge in rubbish dumps, including urban areas in Ethiopia (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Breeding Site The species will construct large nests (averaging 1-m diameter), composed of branches and lined with animal remains such as skin and wool, as well as dung and occasionally also rubbish. Nests are located on remote overhung cliff ledges or in caves and will be re-used over the years. Breeding occurs from December to September in Europe and northern Africa; October-May in Ethiopia; May-January in southern Africa; year-round in much of eastern Africa; and December-June in India (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).


Threats
The main causes of on-going declines appear to be non-target poisoning, direct persecution, habitat degradation, disturbance of breeding birds, inadequate food availability, changes in livestock-rearing practices and collisions with powerlines and wind turbines (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Barov and Derhé 2011, S. Xirouchaki in litt. 2012). Despite the provision of targeted conservation actions, the European population remains susceptible to poisoning and mortality caused by powerlines (J. A. Gil Gallus in litt. 2011).

In South Asia, the most significant potential threat may be from diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in livestock and responsible for catastrophic declines in three of the region's Gyps species since the 1990s, through ingestion at contaminated carcasses and resultant kidney failure (reviewed by Das et al. 2010). Gypaetus barbatus is primarily a bone-eater, and it is not known if diclofenac residues remain within bones of treated animals, although residues are known to be passed into feathers and hair; however, the local collapse in Gyps species could allow this species to access and feed on soft tissues from which it would have been excluded (C. Inskipp and H. S. Baral in litt. 2013).

In the Himalayas of India, the species may be impacted by the increase in feral dogs, which potentially compete for food (P. Trivedi in litt. 2013). Rapid increases in grazing pressure and human populations in the mountains of Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey and western Pakistan are causing habitat degradation in these countries (S. Viter in litt. 2014). Suitable habitat is also threatened by pipeline construction through the Altai and Caucasus mountains, and powerline construction is planned from Tajikistan through Afghanistan to Pakistan and India (S. Viter in litt. 2014). In parts of Nepal at least, the species may suffer from the collection of nestlings, as they are seen by local people as a good omen for prosperity, as well as the destruction of nests to reclaim human-made materials such as rope and fabrics, and hunting pressure driven by the use of the species's intestines in tradit

Conservation Actions Underway
In Europe, captive breeding and reintroduction programmes have been carried out in the Austrian, French, Italian and Swiss Alps with individuals subsequently spreading into other parts of France (Snow and Perrins 1998, Frey and Walter 1989). Reintroduction programmes are underway in parts of Spain (J. A. Gil Gallus in litt. 2011). Feeding stations have been provided in the Pyrenees with resulting increases in numbers of the species, and the provision of similar stations across the species's range could improve its global population density (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). A reintroduction programme was attempted in Kenya in 1999-2003 (S. Thomsett in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct coordinated surveys to monitor the species's global population trend. Assess the threat posed by diclofenac and other drugs used in livestock, as well as the impacts of climate change and feral dogs. Reduce disturbance in and around nesting areas. Mitigate against the impacts of wind turbines and powerlines. Combat the threat of persecution through laws and awareness-raising activities. Provide feeding stations throughout the species's range.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Acharya, R.; Cuthbert, R.; Baral, H. S.; Chaudhary, A. 2010. Rapid decline of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Upper Mustang, Nepal. Forktail 26: 117-120.

Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. 2011. Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus species action plan implementation review. In: Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. (eds), Review of The Implementation Of Species Action Plans for Threatened Birds in the European Union 2004-2010. Final report. BirdLife International For the European Commission.

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Das, D.; Cuthbert, R.; Jakati, R. D.; Prakash, V. 2010. Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensis . Bird Conservation Internatnational 21: 72–75.

Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Frey, H., Walter, W. 1989. The reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus into the Alps. In: Meyburg, B. –U., and Chancellor, R. D. (eds), Raptors in the Modern World, pp. 341-344. WWGBP, Berlin.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Simmons, R. E.; Jenkins, A. R. 2007. Is climate change influencing the decline of Cape and Bearded Vultures in southern Africa? Vulture News: 41-51.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

European Union Species Action Plan

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Jump to the case study for this species in Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species (Deniet et al. 2003)

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Angelov, I., Baral, H., Cuzin, F., Ghasabyan, M., Gil, J., Ibrahim, W., Inskipp, C., Naoroji, R., Sklyarenko, S., Stoynov, E., Thomsett, S., Galligan, T., Sharma, M., Porter, R., Rodenbaugh, C., Xirouchakis, S., Viter, S., Krüger, S., Trivedi, P., Boyla, K. & Paudel, K.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gypaetus barbatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 1300-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,580,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change