This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened owing to evidence that is has undergone a moderately rapid population decline over the past three generations.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Behaviour It is resident where is occurs, but has vast home ranges, and juveniles will wander even more widely than adults (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat The species occupies remote, mountainous areas, with precipitous terrain, usually above 1,000 m, and in particular areas where large predators such as wolves and Golden Eagles are present, and there are herds of mammals such as mountain goats, ibex, and sheep (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Diet The species will forage over vast distances (up to 700 km in one day has been recorded), using a soaring flight. Its principle food is carrion, with its diet including a large proportion of bones (as much as 85%) whereupon the bird gets nutrition from the marrow inside. The rest of its diet comprises tortoises, and occasionally also live mammals and birds. It is generally unwilling to compete with vultures at carcasses, and will wait patiently to feed, scavenging older carcasses if fresh meat is scarce. Bones are either consumed whole, broken using the bill, hammered against the ground, or lifted into the air and dropped from 50-80 m high onto hard rock. Tortoises and hyraxes are generally treated in the same way as bones. It is known to scavenge in rubbish dumps, including urban areas in Ethiopia (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Breeding Site The species will construct large nests (averaging 1-m diameter), composed of branches and lined with animal remains such as skin and wool, as well as dung and occasionally also rubbish. Nests are located on remote overhung cliff ledges or in caves and will be re-used over the years. Breeding occurs from December to September in Europe and northern Africa; October-May in Ethiopia; May-January in southern Africa; year-round in much of eastern Africa; and December-June in India (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
The main causes of on-going declines appear to be non-target poisoning, direct persecution, habitat degradation, disturbance of breeding birds, inadequate food availability, changes in livestock-rearing practices and collisions with powerlines and wind turbines (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Barov and Derhé 2011, S. Xirouchaki in litt. 2012). Despite the provision of targeted conservation actions, the European population remains susceptible to poisoning and mortality caused by powerlines (J. A. Gil Gallus in litt. 2011).
In South Asia, the most significant potential threat may be from diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in livestock and responsible for catastrophic declines in three of the region's Gyps species since the 1990s, through ingestion at contaminated carcasses and resultant kidney failure (reviewed by Das et al. 2010). Gypaetus barbatus is primarily a bone-eater, and it is not known if diclofenac residues remain within bones of treated animals, although residues are known to be passed into feathers and hair; however, the local collapse in Gyps species could allow this species to access and feed on soft tissues from which it would have been excluded (C. Inskipp and H. S. Baral in litt. 2013).
In the Himalayas of India, the species may be impacted by the increase in feral dogs, which potentially compete for food (P. Trivedi in litt. 2013). Rapid increases in grazing pressure and human populations in the mountains of Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey and western Pakistan are causing habitat degradation in these countries (S. Viter in litt. 2014). Suitable habitat is also threatened by pipeline construction through the Altai and Caucasus mountains, and powerline construction is planned from Tajikistan through Afghanistan to Pakistan and India (S. Viter in litt. 2014). In parts of Nepal at least, the species may suffer from the collection of nestlings, as they are seen by local people as a good omen for prosperity, as well as the destruction of nests to reclaim human-made materials such as rope and fabrics, and hunting pressure driven by the use of the species's intestines in traditional medicine (Acharya et al. 2010, K. Paudel and T. Galligan in litt. 2014). The use of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides may also have impacts on the species (Acharya et al. 2010).
In East Africa, the most prevalent threat to scavenging birds is said to be poisoning (S. Thomsett in litt. 2011). In Ethiopia, the species is threatened by the construction of powerlines in the highlands and the use of poisons to control dogs at refuse tips (I. Angelov in litt. 2011).
Simmons and Jenkins (2007) suggested that population trends in this species in southern Africa may be correlated with climate trends. Despite the threat of habitat degradation, the species has been noted to adapt to and nest in modified landscapes, such as in Ethiopia (S. Thomsett in litt. 2011).
Conservation Actions Underway
In Europe, captive breeding and reintroduction programmes have been carried out in the Austrian, French, Italian and Swiss Alps with individuals subsequently spreading into other parts of France (Snow and Perrins 1998, Frey and Walter 1989). Reintroduction programmes are underway in parts of Spain (J. A. Gil Gallus in litt. 2011). Feeding stations have been provided in the Pyrenees with resulting increases in numbers of the species, and the provision of similar stations across the species's range could improve its global population density (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). A reintroduction programme was attempted in Kenya in 1999-2003 (S. Thomsett in litt. 2011).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct coordinated surveys to monitor the species's global population trend. Assess the threat posed by diclofenac and other drugs used in livestock, as well as the impacts of climate change and feral dogs. Reduce disturbance in and around nesting areas. Mitigate against the impacts of wind turbines and powerlines. Combat the threat of persecution through laws and awareness-raising activities. Provide feeding stations throughout the species's range.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Acharya, R.; Cuthbert, R.; Baral, H. S.; Chaudhary, A. 2010. Rapid decline of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in Upper Mustang, Nepal. Forktail 26: 117-120.
Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. 2011. Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus species action plan implementation review. In: Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. (eds), Review of The Implementation Of Species Action Plans for Threatened Birds in the European Union 2004-2010. Final report. BirdLife International For the European Commission.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Das, D.; Cuthbert, R.; Jakati, R. D.; Prakash, V. 2010. Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensis . Bird Conservation Internatnational 21: 72-75.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Frey, H., Walter, W. 1989. The reintroduction of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus into the Alps. In: Meyburg, B. -U., and Chancellor, R. D. (eds), Raptors in the Modern World, pp. 341-344. WWGBP, Berlin.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Simmons, R. E.; Jenkins, A. R. 2007. Is climate change influencing the decline of Cape and Bearded Vultures in southern Africa? Vulture News: 41-51.
Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Further web sources of information
Detailed regional assessment and species account from the European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International, 2015)
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
Angelov, I., Baral, H., Cuzin, F., Ghasabyan, M., Gil, J., Ibrahim, W., Inskipp, C., Naoroji, R., Sklyarenko, S., Stoynov, E., Thomsett, S., Galligan, T., Sharma, M., Porter, R., Rodenbaugh, C., Xirouchakis, S., Viter, S., Krüger, S., Trivedi, P., Boyla, K. & Paudel, K.
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Gypaetus barbatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Population size||1300-6700 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||8,580,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Projected distributions under climate change
- 2015 European Red List assessment