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Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable since it has a small population which is likely to continue declining unless ongoing conservation efforts, including public awareness programmes and supplementary feeding, as well as efforts to reduce the threat from powerlines, are successful (Collar and Stuart 1985).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
100-115 cm. Very large vulture with near-naked head and neck. Adult creamy-buff, with contrasting dark flight- and tail-feathers. Pale buff neck-ruff. Underwing in flight has pale silvery secondary feathers and black alula. Yellowish eye, black bill, bluish throat and facial skin, dark neck. Juveniles and immatures generally darker and more streaked, with brown to orange eyes and red neck. Similar spp. White-backed Vulture G. africanus is smaller and, usually, darker, with more streaking and different wing pattern. Voice Loud cackles, grunts, hisses and roars.

Distribution and population
Gyps coprotheres is found in South Africa (where overall numbers are decreasing [Vernon 1999, Barnes 2000, Benson 2000] with a minimum of 630 pairs at 143 colonies and 2000 individuals in the Eastern Cape and 39% of colonies recorded between 1987-1992 now inactive [Boshoff et al. 2009]), Lesotho (c.552 pairs at c.47 colonies, with a continuing decline at some colonies [Donnay 1990]), eastern and south-eastern Botswana (c.600 pairs [Borello and Borello 2002, Borello in litt. 2003]) and Mozambique (10-15 pairs near Swaziland [Parker 1999]). It formerly bred in Swaziland (declined to extinction [Parker 1994]), central Zimbabwe (declined to extinction - an isolated roost of up to 150 non-breeding birds persists [Mundy et al. 1997]), and Namibia (over 2,000 in the 1950s, but now considered extinct as a breeding species [Wolter 2011]). By 2000 there were only 6-12 birds in Namibia (Simmons et al. 1998a, R. Simmons in litt. 1999, 2000, Diekmann and Strachan 2006), with 16 birds released in October 2005 (Diekmann and Strachan 2006). Birds fitted with satellite transmitters in Namibia have been recorded making flights of up to 400 km into Angola (M. Diekmann in litt. 2006). The total population was estimated to be 4,400 pairs in 84 colonies in 1994 (Piper 1994), and was implied to have declined to c.4,000 pairs by 1999 (Barnes 2000). 18 'core' colonies now hold 80% of the G. coprotheres population (Boshoff and Anderson 2007). In 2006, the total population was estimated at 8,000-10,000 individuals (M. Diekmann in litt. 2006). The population is estimated to have declined by 10% between 1994 and 1999 (Barnes 2000), and over the period 1992-2007, the species declined by 60-70% in eastern South Africa (McKean and Botha 2007).

Population justification
In 2006, the total population was estimated at 8,000-10,000 individuals (M. Diekmann in litt. 2006), roughly equivalent to 5,300-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is estimated to have declined by 10% between 1994 and 1999 (Barnes 2000), and over the period 1992-2007, the species declined by 60-70% in eastern South Africa (McKean and Botha 2007). Until further analysis is carried out the overall rate of decline is presumed to be at, or just exceeding 20% over three generations.

Ecology
It is a long-lived (Oatley et al. 1998) carrion-feeder specialising on large carcasses, it flies long distances over open country, although usually found near mountains, where it breeds and roosts on cliffs (Mundy et al. 1992).

Threats
The species is assumed to be declining throughout much of its range in the face of a multitude of threats (Boshoff and Anderson 2007). Sixteen known or suspected mortality factors were identified and ranked at an expert workshop with a decrease in the amount of carrion (particularly during chick-rearing), inadvertent poisoning, electrocution on pylons or collision with cables, loss of foraging habitat and unsustainable harvesting for traditional uses considered the most important factors (Mundy et al. 1992, Barnes 2000, Benson 2000, Borello and Borello 2002, Boshoff and Anderson 2007). Further threats include disturbance at colonies, bush encroachment and drowning (Anderson 1999, Borello and Borello 2002, Bamford et al. 2007). In southern Africa, vultures are caught and consumed for perceived medicinal and psychological benefits (McKean and Botha 2007, Anon. 2008). It is estimated that 160 vultures are sold and that there are 59,000 vulture-part consumption events in eastern South Africa each year, involving an estimated 1,250 hunters, traders and healers. At current harvest levels, the populations of this species in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho could become locally extinct within 44-53 years. Should the populations of White-backed Vultures G. africanus become depleted first, the resultant increase in hunting pressure on G. coprotheres could cause a population collapse within the subsequent 12 years (McKean and Botha 2007, Anon. 2008). Extrapolation from a limited study of traditional healers in Maseru, Lesotho, suggests that, conservatively, nearly 7% of the breeding population in that country would be lost annually for such use (Beilis and Esterhuizen 2005). 
The species suffers mortality from the ingestion of poison left for pests (not vultures) (Diekmann and Strachan 2006) and potentially Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug often used for livestock, and which is fatal to Gyps spp. when ingested at livestock carcasses (Komen 2006, BirdLife International news www.birdlife.org/news 2007). In 2007, Diclofenac, was found to be on sale at a veterinary practice in Tanzania (BirdLife International news www.birdlife.org/news 2007). In addition, it was reported that in Tanzania, a Brazilian manufacturer has been aggressively marketing the drug for veterinary purposes (C. Bowden in litt. 2007) and exporting it to 15 African countries (BirdLife International news www.birdlife.org/news 2007). A single poisoning incident can kill 50-500 birds, making the species susceptible to sudden local declines (M. Diekmann in litt. 2006). The collapse of a key colony in eastern Botswana has been attributed to human disturbance, especially insensitive tourism (Borello and Borello 2002). The ongoing urbanisation around Hartbeespoort Dam and the Magaliesberg Mountains, South Africa, has limited the extent of natural areas for foraging by vultures, perhaps resulting in their reliance on supplementary food at vulture "restaurants" (Wolter et al. unpubl.). If such restaurants were closed, vultures might be exposed to unsafe carcasses (Wolter et al. unpubl.). 
Poor grassland management in some areas has promoted bush encroachment, making finding carcasses more difficult for vultures (Schultz 2007). There are records of at least 120 individuals (21 incidents) of this species drowning in small farm reservoirs in southern Africa between the early 1970s and late 1990s (Anderson et al. 1999), although modifications to many reservoirs have now been made (Boshoff et al. 2009). Raptors are thought to drown after attempting to bathe or d

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II. It is legally protected throughout its range. Some breeding colonies lie within protected areas (Barnes 2000). Non-governmental organisations have successfully raised awareness among farming communities in South Africa of the plight of this species (Barnes 2000). Many nestlings of this species were colour-ringed in southern Africa in the 1970s and 1980s (Botha 2006). The national electricity supplier in South Africa has replaced pylons in some regions with a design that reduces electrocution risk to large birds (Barnes 2000), and breeding numbers have increased in one area (Wolter et al. 2007). Supplementary feeding at vulture restaurants may have helped to slow declines in some areas (Barnes 2000). The establishment of a restaurant at Nooitgedacht, South Africa, is thought to have helped promote the recolonisation of the former colony there, and another restaurant has possibly contributed the species's recovery in Magaliesberg (Wolter et al. unpubl.), although the extent of the species's dependence on such artificial food sources is yet to be studied in depth (W. D. Borello in litt. 2007, Wolter et al. unpubl.). Supplementary feeding is known to significantly increase the survival rate of first-year birds in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (Piper et al. 1999). 37 individuals were in captivity in Namibia in 2011, with 7 breeding pairs from which at least 2 chicks have been hatched (Anon. 2011). In October 2005, 16 birds from South Africa were released in Namibia and, although at least two have perished (Diekmann and Strachan 2006) and one was taken into care with a companion (Komen 2006), data on flight patterns and breeding behaviour have been recorded from two birds that were fitted with satellite transmitters (Anon. 2006). By 2006, five birds had been fitted with satellite tracking collars (Diekmann and Strachan 2006, Bamford et al. 2007). In Namibia, both communal and commercial farmers have been educated about the benefits that vultures bring and thus the disadvantages of poisoning carcasses, whilst there is also an education centre and education programme for schools (Diekmann and Strachan 2006). A conservation workshop for the species was held in March 2006 and was attended by 19 individuals (Komen 2006). The group reassessed the status of the species and the threats it faces, and decided on conservation actions. A task force was established and people were identified to manage conservation actions for each of the key colonies in southern Africa. In the East Cape awareness programmes have led to modifications in cement reservoirs to prevent drownings as well as aiming to reduce indirect poisoning. A press release was circulated in March 2006 raising awareness of the dangers of using diclofenac in the treatment of cattle. In 2006, the re-establishment of monitoring was expected at the species's only colony in Zimbabwe (Komen 2006). A press release was circulated in July 2007 to raise awareness of the impacts of hunting for medicinal and cultural reasons in southern Africa (McKean and Botha 2007). The threat posed by anti-inflammatory drugs in southern Africa is under investigation (K. Wolter in litt. 2007). An expert workshop on the species's conservation was held in South Africa in March 2006 (Boshoff and Anderson 2006). Conservation Actions Proposed
Develop conservation plans for each of the 18 'core' colonies through the Cape Griffon Task Force (Boshoff and Anderson 2007, Jenkins 2010). Protect breeding colonies (Barnes 2000), and prevent uninhibited access by tourists to nesting sites (Borello and Borello 2002, Hancock 2008). Develop captive-breeding projects and mitigate impacts from poisoning and electrocution (Barnes 2000). Increase availability of livestock carcasses to G. coprothere

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Anderson, M. D.; Maritz, A. W. A.; Oosthuysen, E. 1999. Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich 70(2): 139-144.

Anon. 2006. Namibia's Cape Griffon Vultures receive boost. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13: 16.

Anon. 2008. Traditional medicine demand threatens vultures in southern Africa. Vulture News: 77-79.

Anon. 2011. Cape Vulture Breeding and Reintroduction. Website. Available at: http://www.vultureconservation.co.za/?p=527. (Accessed: 20/03/2012).

Bamford, A. J.; Diekmann, M.; Monadjem, A.; Mendelsohn, J. 2007. Ranging behaviour of Cape Vultures Gyps coprotheres from an endangered population in Namibia. Bird Conservation International 17(4): 331-339.

Barnes, K. N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Beilis, N.; Esterhuizen, J. 2005. The potential impact on Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres populations due to the trade in traditional medicine in Maseru, Lesotho. Vulture News: 15-19.

Benson, P. C. 2000. Causes of Cape Vulture mortality at the Kransberg colony: a 17 year update. In: Chancellor, R.D.; Meyburg, B.-U. (ed.), Raptors at risk, pp. 77-86. Hancock House, Surrey, Canada.

BirdLife International. 2008. Drugs firms told to do more to prevent vulture extinctions. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2008/08/indian_drug_announcemment.html#.

Borello, W. D.; Borello, R. M. 2002. The breeding status and colony dynamics of Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) in Botswana. Bird Conservation International 12: 79-97.

Boshoff, A. F.; Anderson, M.D. 2006. Towards a conservation plan for the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres: identifying priorities for research and conservation action.

Boshoff, A.; Anderson, M. D. 2007. Towards a conservation plan for the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres: identifying priorities for research and conservation. Vulture News: 56-59.

Boshoff, A.; Piper, S.; Michael, M. 2009. On the distribution and breeding status of the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Ostrich 80(2): 85-92.

Botha, A. 2006. A new vulture colour-marking method for southern Africa. Endangered Wildlife: 12-14.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Diekmann, M.; Strachan, A. 2006. Saving Namibia's most endangered bird. WAZA Magazine: 16-19.

Donnay, T. J. 1990. Status, nesting and nest site selection of Cape Vultures in Lesotho. Vulture News 24: 11-24.

Hancock, P. 2008. The status of globally and nationally threatened birds in Botswana.

Hancock, P. 2008. Cape Vulture. In: Hancock, P. (ed.), The status of globally and nationally threatened birds in Botswana, 2008., pp. 9-10. BirdLife Botswana.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Jenkins, A. 2010. Cape Vulture. Africa - Birds & Birding 15(2): 62-63.

McKean, S.; Botha, A. 2007. Traditional medicine demand threatens vultures in Southern Africa.

Mundy, P. J.; Benson, P. C.; Allan, D. G. 1997. Cape Vulture Kransaalvoël Gyps coprotheres. In: Harrison, J.A.; Allan, D.G.; Underhill, L.G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A.J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C.J. (ed.), The atlas of southern African birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines, pp. 158-159. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Mundy, P.; Butchart, D.; Ledger, J.; Piper, S. 1992. The vultures of Africa. Academic Press, London.

Oatley, T. B.; Oschadleus, H. D.; Navarro, R. A.; Underhill, L. G. 1998. Review of ring recoveries of birds of prey in southern Africa: 1948-1998.

Parker, V. 1994. Swaziland bird atlas 1985--1991. Webster's, Mbabane.

Parker, V. 1999. The atlas of the birds of Sul do Save, southern Mozambique. Avian Demography Unit and Endangered Wildlife Trust., Cape Town and Johannesburg.

Piper, S. E. 1994. Mathematical demography of the Cape Vulture. Thesis. MSc., Witwatersrand University.

Piper, S. E.; Boshoff, A. F.; Scott, H. A. 1999. Modelling survival rates in the Cape Griffon Gyps coprotheres with emphasis on the effects of supplementary feeding. Bird Study 46: 230-238.

Schultz, P. 2007. Does bush encroachment impact foraging success of the critically endangered Namibian population of the Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres? Vulture News: 109.

Simmons, R. E.; Boix-Hinzen, C.; Barnes, K. N.; Jarvis, A. M.; Robertson, A. 1998. Important Bird Areas of Namibia. In: Barnes, K.N. (ed.), The Important Bird Areas of southern Africa, pp. 295-332. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Simmons, R. E.; Jenkins, A. R. 2007. Is climate change influencing the decline of Cape and Bearded Vultures in southern Africa? Vulture News: 41-51.

Vernon, C. 1999. The Cape Vulture at Colleywobbles: 1977--1997. Ostrich 70: 200-202.

Wolter, K.; Naidoo, V.; Whittington-Jones, C.; Bartels, P. unpublished. Does the presence of vulture restaurants influence the movement of Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres) in the Magaliesberg?.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Martin, R, Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Taylor, J., Temple, H. & Symes, A.

Contributors
Borello, W., Bowden, C., Diekmann, M., Simmons, R. & Wolter, K.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gyps coprotheres. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

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Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Forster, 1798)
Population size 5300-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 860,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change